HOFOR, Greater Copenhagen Utility, is the metropolitan area’s utility company. HOFOR is municipally owned, where the ownership of the water and wastewater services are shared between 8 municipalities.
Already in the 1980s Copenhagen community realized that something should be done about the air quality in the town and the avoidance of waste heat. The whole town was ploughed up to install district heating piping, that was getting its energy from a waste incinerating plant and the production of electricity at other plants just outside town.
At first the electricity was produced from natural gas and coal in different plants. First the natural gas plant was redesigned to burn wood pellets and finally a few years ago the big decision was taken to replace the coal fired station with a top of the line wet wood chips burning combined heat and power plant.
In 2019 the plant started production, annually using up to 1.2 million tonnes of wet wood chip (at least 45% moisture content). At the end of the commissioning period, finally this year January the plant reached 100% utilization, meaning that it produced 150 MW electricity and 370 MW of heat simultaneously.
The efficiency of the plant as expressed on the lower heating value of the fuel is well above 100%. This very high number can be achieved due to the fact that the plant uses the low temperature returning district heating water to cool the flue gasses. Once the flue gasses come below 65 degrees C, the evaporated water from the fuel condenses and releases the energy that was used to evaporate it. Not only the water that was evaporated will condense, but also the water that was generated by burning the wood. Wood is a carbohydrate and will form CO2 and water as the main constituents of the fuel gasses. The energy is transferred to the district heating water prior to be run through the boiler to be brought up to the normal running temperature.
Fortunately, the CHP plant is situated at a deep-water port, which makes it possible for even large ships to dock at the plant and transfer their chips directly into production. At the present rate of consumption a ship with between 4000 and 5000 tonnes of fuel is needed every day to keep the plant running. The storage capacity on site is limited to a few days of operation. A little bit of leeway can be obtained by receiving some roundwood (as deck cargo) which can be chipped on site in times of need.
Announcement on Phasing out Wet Wood in England - Coal and wet wood burning: how will restrictions work?
(The notes below are taken from the Guardian Paper 21 February 2020)
Everything you need to know about the phasing out of the polluting domestic fuels in England.
From next year, sales of the most polluting domestic fuels, coal and wet wood, will be phased out in England. What will this mean for households, the environment and the traditional roaring open fire?
Everyone knows coal, but what is wet wood?As the name suggests, this is a type of fuel – usually in the form of undried fuel logs – with a moisture content of at least 20% that is burned in stoves and fireplaces. Also known as green or unseasoned wood, it is cheap and widely available in DIY or garden centres, where it is usually sold in sacks or nets. An estimated 2.5m homes in the UK rely on this or coal for heating.
Why is the government stopping sales of it?The moisture in the wood is a vector for pollutants that can cause breathing problems, heart ailments and lung cancer. When burned, damp wood produces more smoke than dry logs. This includes tiny particulates known as PM2.5 that are more harmful than bigger flakes of soot because they can penetrate deep into the respiratory system and bloodstream. Government figures show coal and wet wood is responsible for 38% of PM2.5 pollution in the UK, three times as much as road transport.
Why now?Action is long overdue. Even in London, which has had smoke control areas for more than 60 years, wood burning accounts for up to 31% of PM2.5, according to a study by King’s College. The mayor’s office says almost 8 million residents of the city live in places where this form of air pollution exceeds World Health Organization guidelines by at least 50%. At least a dozen other towns and cities, including Scunthorpe, Manchester, Swansea and Gillingham, have even higher levels of pollution.
READ FULL ARTICLE FROM GUARDIAN SOURCE:
Bioenergy Future Ireland 2020 is fast approaching you can Register here We are proud to bring together industry leaders and like-minded individuals to openly discuss the importance of bioenergy in the future of Ireland energy supply. We will be looking at the issues and opportunities around Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI), RES (E), National Energy & Climate Plan, Biomass, CHP, Biogas, Biofuels, Anaerobic Digestion and much more. Discussions will take place on the latest developments, trends, strategies and policies relating to one of Ireland’s most important energy sectors.
This plans to be a great event for the industry in Ireland with an impressive speaker line up in place, see below. Delegates will hear engaging presentations from some of the most influential people in the Irish & International bioenergy sectors and there will be multiple engagement opportunities with speakers, IrBEA CEO Sean Finan and President Des O’Toole, along with Government, Industry and Solution Supplier representatives.
CONFIRMED SPEAKERS FOR IRBEA CONFERENCE:
Ray Langton – Sustainable Energy Association Ireland
Donna Gartland – District Heating Association
Billy Costello – Green Generation
Prof. Brian Ó Gallachóir UCC & SEAI Energy Report
James Cogan – Ethanol Europe
Laura Burke – Enviromental Protection Agency
Donal Hayes – Tipperary Cheese
Eugene Hendrick – Wood Fuel Quality Assurance Scheme Chairman
Jack Cotter – Cotter Bros Wood Fuel
More speaker updates to follow….
FOR INFORMATION ON EXHIBITING & BOOKINGS GO TO www.bioenergyfutureireland.com
Follow the video below of Cotter Bros Firewood operations, it’s a film they made some time ago of the firewood processing routine each year. Logs that have been cut last fall are air dried to under 30% first and then setup for processing and further drying to under 25% moisture to make WFQA certified wood. The Sawdust is extracted and bagged and sold as animal bedding - nothing is wasted. Cotter Bros Firewood source all their wood locally from local forest owners and also use local people to work all the plant machinery and timber handling. When you are choosing your home heating, by choosing wood you can make savings of up to 50% on oil, to really make a difference pick a WFQA certified firewood producer. Hope you enjoy the film
The resilience of the forestry and forest products sector is being tested at the moment due to an unprecedented number of blanket submissions opposing afforestation, felling licences and forest roading. This is negatively affecting Coillte, Irish family-owned sawmills, panel board mills, contractors, forestry companies, foresters and private forest owners – mainly farmers.
While most of these stakeholders have been aware that licencing has virtually ceased since last August, it took the recent Mackinnon review to outline the bleakness of the position. Mackinnon explained how increasing submissions – objections – from individuals and organisations on applications have slowed the approval system down to a standstill. He estimated that if submissions on roads and felling applications are added to afforestation the figure rises to over 1,000.
Work is in harvesting but he provides a wide range of other operations including forest road construction, wood-chipping and tree care.
“I employ 18 people, most of them with mortgages and families to support,” he said. “These are likely to be out of work in the new year unless the licence approval system dramatically improves.”
Like most contractors, he has borrowed heavily in order to purchase machinery. “I am currently paying back €2,700 every month for one harvester alone, which needs to work full time to justify this investment,” he explained. “This is the
first time in 47 years that I and my staff are out of work as a result of a situation that is not of our making.”
Afforestation approvals have now reduced to a trickle. “Every obstacle on planting application including referrals to ecologists and a myriad of public bodies is being placed on afforestation at the moment,” maintained a spokesperson for
one of the forestry companies. “Mackinnon was right when he quoted foresters as being concerned for their future as a result of delays in handling applications and the potential for appeals,” he said.
“These concerns exist throughout the forest chain from nursery owners to contractors and from harvesting to processing. “ A lack of a consistent proforestry approach by the inspectorate is a factor where as Mackinnon said ‘actions by some [and] inaction by others can have a negative impact on the livelihood of individuals’.”
Forest Industries Ireland (FII) met the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Coillte and sawmillers last week and is meeting stakeholders this week on trying to chart a future out of the current impasse.
Forest Service approvals for felling licences, afforestation and roading have virtually ceased since August due to 1,000 blanket submissions, writes Donal Magner.
Department Agriculture Food & Marine are conducting a consultation on a “Climate and Air Roadmap for Agriculture”.
This consultation is taking place in three forms.
The closing date for 1 and 2 is this 10th January 2020. The Irish Bioenergy Association along with the WFQA and it’s members are drafting a response to be submitted. We will release this submission shortly to all interested parties.